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ICCROM 31st General Assembly There are so very many remnants of colonial times: from street names and statues that glorify people responsible for massacre and genocide, to objects in museums taken from their original owners, to the human remains of unidentified people held as collection artefacts. There is so much missing in our museums and cultural institutions: histories, stories and traditions of indigenous people and communities, their knowledge of collections and objects.
Coloniality is in many different ways more present than past. In past years, a growing number of cultural institutions, archives, museums across Europe, Northern America, Australia, are trying to tackle the challenge of decolonizing their institutions.
They are aware that the collections they present and research often have a colonial or even racist background.
Initially, decolonization sustaines lomit atsiliepimai hurt to the process that former colonies underwent to free themselves of the colonial supremacy.
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Today the term has become much more than that: a philosophical, moral, social, spiritual and also activist call that points to the fact that we are still subject to the ideology of colonialism.
Decolonizing is about questioning our institutions: how and why are some forms of knowledge given priority and authority over others? How do we organize and categorize knowledge?
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Who determines the selection and quality criteria of collections? Who decides what is presented and represented?
How do we contribute to a renewal of the canon with stories and reference frames that have been systematically erased from it? In short: how do we change the focus, how do we alter our perspective? Decolonizing is about difficult conversations and reflections on the meaning of cultural institutions and who these institutions are intended to serve.
It is about open and true dialogue with all members of communities and society, it is about sharing power and authority. Decolonizing is about cultural institutions becoming learning communities. About the necessity to create room for multiple perspectives showing the different contexts that determine how we look at objects or themes.
Four invited speakers, Dr. Wayne Modest, Dr. Shahid Vawda, Puawai Cairns and Dr. Sarah Pash, will present their views on these challenges, and how communities and other stakeholders can work together to confront historic injustices and ongoing inequalities, and promote the emergence of decolonial heritage practices. Indeed, these terms are often used together to describe museum practices and departments aimed at the preservation of collections.
Thinking from feminist and queer activist perspectives, this presentation explores care not as a logical couplet for conservation, but as a future-oriented horizon for imagining what conservation can become in times of decolonisation. My presentation coincides with recent demands from diverse sustaines lomit atsiliepimai hurt globally to decolonise museums. Increasingly, such critique has also focused on how museums confront their relationship nuo pėdos skausmo the colonial past, and concomitantly how they deal with the objects in their collections acquired during the colonial period.
I will take ICCROM and ICOM, both part of what might be called the structure of global heritage governance, as starting points to think through what might be needed to decolonise conservation, and to transform it into a decolonial practice of care.
My presentation will not solely be theoretical in approach. I am particularly interested in injustices that rest on knowledges, or lack of knowledges, and current practices that have entanglements or connections from historical antecedents in a pre and colonial past. The present, I contend, must be understood as coloniality, rather than a post-colonial linear development from colonialism.
To answer this question there are two issues that need to be addressed. And how this modernity was, and is, imposed, resisted, assimilated and accommodated.
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What were and are the conceptual tools or knowledge deployed to this task? While this means providing an outline of the colonial situation, I want to suggest that we need to fundamentally re-think colonialism and how its imprint continues and is sustained world-wide in the cultural heritage sector. This indelible imprint in the cultural heritage sector, I suggest, is most keenly felt in the developing world as an epistemological injustice, rather than simply physical violence.
It arises from colonial and in post-colonial situations where experts, officials and leaders often disregard the varying interlocutors by ignoring, silencing, playing down, or obscuring their knowledge, voices and actions. It also has equally strong echoes in the developed world. The second issue is how to address the colonial imprint, i. Despite significant universal progress in terms of recognition of diversity, cultural differences, intangible heritage, national and indigenous autonomies and advances in living standards, cultural heritage as a set of practices has had inconsistent and contradictory outcomes.
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It requires cultural heritage institutions to reflect and think about artefacts and sites, within disparities and inequalities of wealth, poverty and power, and to ask questions as who shapes the meanings of how we think, talk and write and implement plans to conserve, preserve, display and inaugurate cultural heritage practices.
Decolonisation or indigenisation.
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Nourishing museums sustaines lomit atsiliepimai hurt indigenisation Puawai Cairns Museums suffer from a chronic inherited condition called colonisation. It affects every part of their body and the bodies they come in contact with. And they are increasingly asking indigenous people to medicate its painful aging symptoms in a process the sustaines lomit atsiliepimai hurt are calling decolonisation.
But what happens when that prescription is contrary to what indigenous people may see as the most appropriate corrective measure for them and for the museum, a process of transformation through indigenisation? I see indigenisation as a process of caring for and nourishing, composting the ground upon which the museum is built so that Māori aspirations are given a fertile ground to grow and to support the future bicultural well-being of the museum and gydymas sąnarių sąnarių liaudies gynimo priemones Māori communities that surround it.
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An Eeyou Approach to Heritage Sarah Pash Working from the conviction that Indigenous Heritage is a right that must be authentically exercised, the Cree Nation of Eeyou Istchee has developed its own vehicles for maintenance of culture and language to ensure that Eeyou heritage is accessible for generations to come. Much development has been due to the sustaines lomit atsiliepimai hurt the Cree Nation of Eeyou Istchee negotiated with Canada and the Province of Quebec; the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, a modern-day agreement, sustaines lomit atsiliepimai hurt, among other foundational initiatives, ensures the development of institutions necessary to exercising self-determination in heritage management, and initiatives necessary for maintenance of culture and language.
Over the past 40 years, this Indigenous nation has developed its own school board with power to determine programming related to Cree culture and language maintenance, the language of instruction, and history and citizenship curriculum. This cultural institute is mandated with ensuring that Cree culture is practised and celebrated, that both tangible and intangible heritage are maintained, and that the language lives in strength for generations to come.
Other regional associations related to the practice and maintenance of culture and tradition support the ability to carry on the traditional hunting and trapping lifestyle living in-relation and respect with the land, the ability to perpetuate the practice of traditional arts and crafts, and the ability to ensure occupation and use of the territory.
Thematic Discussion: Decolonizing Heritage
We are the people of the land, the Eeyou of Eeyou Istchee. Our relationship with the land, defines who we are; who we are, our identity as Eeyouch, defines the way in which we approach heritage management. Sarah Pash will speak about how the Cree Nation of Eeyou Istchee has approached heritage management from a strong, self-determining stance and explore concepts of reconciliation and decolonizing heritage management practices from this perspective.